England’s 1982 World Cup campaign has been recalled in the new book Out of the Shadows: The Story of the 1982 England World Cup Team by Gary Jordan. It takes us back 35 years to the days of Admiral kits, Ron Greenwood and an injury-hit Kevin Keegan…
There are two conflicting perspectives that exist concerning England’s 1982 World Cup campaign. The first is that it’s a tournament England could quite feasibly have won, the side starting superbly against France and cruelly being eliminated after not losing any games, conceding only one goal in five matches and having the misfortune to land a tougher second round draw by winning their first round group than if they had finished runners-up. But the second viewpoint is that England weren’t really that great as they struggled to qualify, only really excelled in one game during the tournament and displayed far more caution than they should have in the second group phase as they limped out when a great opportunity lay in front of them.
That lack of consensus is evident in Gary Jordan’s impressive new book Out of the Shadows, which provides a detailed look back at how Ron Greenwood’s men performed in Spain. After England won away to Wales in April 1982, the Welsh manager Mike England was damning about his namesakes and suggested they would be lucky to get out of the initial group stage; after England had exited in the second round group phase – effectively the quarter-finals – midfielder Ray Wilkins would state the side were “second-best of the 24” with only Brazil being better. “We all thought we were very unlucky,” writes Paul Mariner in the book’s foreword. If the opinions are balanced out, the reality of how good England were lay probably somewhere in between – about the position they ranked during the tournament.
But as Wilkins would state: “The nagging feeling remains we could have gone further.” For the decisive game against Spain, England knew they would have to score at least twice to top the second round group ahead of West Germany – with the Spaniards already out of their own party. The three-team group format was not without its faults, not least that a 2-1 England win would see their fate decided by the toss of a coin. But England wouldn’t get the goals required to even achieve that. Substitutes Trevor Brooking and Kevin Keegan missed key chances to break the deadlock after finally taking to the field following injury-plagued tournaments, as the game ended goalless. Jordan writes: “The dream was tantalisingly close, and yet in this game where they needed inspiration and goals, both were lacking.”
Keegan’s battle to be fit figures prominently, the captain and star name facing a race against time to shake off his back injury and finally appear at a World Cup finals. Imagine during next year’s World Cup if an injured Harry Kane drove 250 miles through the night in the hotel receptionist’s tiny car to then catch a flight so he could go and see a specialist in the land of England’s group rivals. The book details Keegan doing just that, increasingly disillusioned with the treatment given by England’s medics and knowing a specialist in Hamburg – where he had played for three years – could improve matters. He persuaded Greenwood to let him go ahead with his plan and put himself back in the World Cup reckoning, It’s a story which reminds us just how desperate Keegan was to play in that World Cup, not least because he was never realistically going to get another chance. He’d had a long wait to appear in one in the first place.
As the book’s title reminds us, this was England’s first World Cup finals for 12 years. It would be the equivalent of England now preparing for their first World Cup since 2006 after being absent in 2010 and 2014 (some might say that would have been preferable given how they performed in those two tournaments!). The proceeding years of struggle are recalled, especially the period after Greenwood took over as manager in 1977.
Come the finals England would come out of the blocks with three wins from as many games in the first group stage, then fail to score thereafter. It was the opposite of such fondly remembered England campaigns as the World Cups of 1966 and 1990 and Euro ’96, where they improved after labouring in their first game. It was also in contrast to Italy, who scraped through the first round round without winning before going on to be champions. As Jordan writes: “Italy started slowly and went though the tournament getting better with each game. England were the opposite, playing premium football at the start, only to run out goals at the end.”
Ron Greenwood was England’s manager during the 1982 World Cup.
And that failure to score in the second round looms large. Writing of Greenwood, who retired as planned after the finals, Jordan states: “Having come away from the tournament unbeaten was an achievement, but to have come so close to a semi-final place at the very least but fall short due to a freeze in front of goal was galling. He walked away from the job after five years of struggle, grief, joy and relief in the knowledge that he had brought back some pride within the team and for the fans who deserved better than to be stuck in no man’s land on the world stage.”
It’s a fair summary. England had at least got back to their familiar exit level of just missing out on a semi-final place, which was less than the ultimate target but far better than the previous decade had yielded. Yet a nagging feeling persists it could have been more and Keegan’s miss would symbolise the opportunity that was there in front of them. There’s no guarantee that England would have got the required second goal had he scored, but it remains a ‘what if?’ moment. So too does whether England would have thrived more if he and Brooking had been fit for the whole tournament, rather than less than half an hour of it. Mariner certainly suggests things would have been different, echoing the thoughts of Kenny Sansom.
There’s plenty more to enjoy and recall here. The painful struggle England faced to qualify and how the senior players talked Greenwood out of calling it a day in the summer of 1981; the defensive crisis England endured that continually left Greenwood without a settled back line ahead of the finals; the balls-up made during the World Cup draw in front of the watching millions around the world; the potential threat the Falklands War was posing to the side’s presence in the finals; Bryan Robson scoring after just 27 seconds against France; the dilemma Greenwood faced over selecting Ray Clemence or Peter Shilton until he eventually finally picked his number one; and the Admiral shirts England wore out in Spain, with the polyester design proving particularly uncomfortable in the win over France in the Bilbao heat.
If you are of a certain age, it’s likely the England World Cup song This Time will be in your head as you read it all. Countless books have been written concerning the England’s team’s history, but very little has been devoted to the Greenwood era and the 1982 World Cup campaign. This book puts that right and gives long overdue attention to England’s return to international football’s biggest tournament after 12 years in the wilderness. We are sure ‘Reverend Ron’ would have given it his blessing.
- Out of the Shadows: The Story of the 1982 England World Cup Team is out now and is written by Gary Jordan and published by Pitch Publishing. It is available from sources including Amazon.
This week we turn the spotlight on women’s football and review the recently released autobiography of Hope Powell, who managed England from 1998 to 2013 after previously enjoying a lengthy international playing career. The book provides an interesting insight into someone who came to symbolise progression for the women’s national team but also for the stature of the female game in England…
Hope Powell last month celebrated her 50th birthday and it has been a life in which she has often found herself fighting the odds. Her childhood was not always easy, growing up in a household where her mother was the victim of domestic violence. As a girl growing up playing football Powell was very much in the minority, her younger days falling into an era when females playing the sport would attract derision and be viewed with perplexity.
Even when she made it to becoming an England international it was a world away from the professional women’s game that has now developed, having to pay to play at club level. Powell would be a role model for any black girls looking to make it in the sport, having to deal with an instance of racism in her playing days. And she is also one of the most high-profile openly gay figures in English football, snubbing an approach in recent years to manage Nigeria’s women for reasons including the nation’s policies towards same-sex relationships.
And even as a female manager within the women’s game she found herself in the minority, Powell blazing a trail by being the first – and so far only – woman to manage the England side. A constant theme of Hope: My Life in Football is how she has had to fight for equality, resenting the way men are given managerial jobs in the women’s game but not the other way round.
“We need more women in the top jobs,” she insists, while also reminding readers that her successor Mark Sampson is “less experienced and less qualified than me”. She was once linked with the manager’s job at Grimsby Town, but maintains she neither applied for the post nor received any contact from the Mariners about it. There was an approach from non-league Windsor which she considered taking, but the timing was not right for her. Powell would become the first woman to gain her UEFA pro-licence qualification, working closely with such established football names as Stuart Pearce to achieve it. Kevin Keegan emerges in the book as a supportive figure of England’s women, while a converted Howard Wilkinson would also prove a particular ally of Powell’s.
Standing up for herself
Powell certainly gives the impression she is not a woman to be messed with. During the book she recalls clipping an un-named member of Team GB’s men’s football team around the back of the head for ogling her players; of putting Derek Fazackerley straight when he thinks she is the new office girl at the FA, rather than the women’s team manager; and of standing up to a misogynistic man in Jordan who pushed in front of her, leaving him mumbling apologies. Most significantly she managed to help free her mum from a life of domestic violence, putting her own personal safety at risk to confront her mother’s partner and involve the police to ensure her mum could move on to enjoy a happier life. Any football challenge has been minor by comparison, although it has been far from straightforward.
Powell found herself banned from playing football with boys as a child, so she ended up defying her mum’s orders and joining Millwall Lionesses. By the age of 14 she was playing first-team football and she would quickly break into the England squad. In 1984 she helped England reach the European Competition for Women’s Football against Sweden, Powell getting an unwelcome insight into how conservative England remained about women’s football compared to elsewhere. The first-leg in Scandinavia was a big deal to the locals, the return game so insignificant to most of English football that no ground in London was made available by the clubs to stage the match (it was eventually played at Luton). Powell writes: “Swedish football was so far in advance of our own in terms of its development, it was almost embarrassing.”
For an English women’s footballer in the 1980s there was little glamour, even if playing for leading clubs such as Millwall Lionesses and Friends of Fulham as Powell did. She writes: “A lot of the games were watched by two men and a dog – sometimes it was just the dog. When I look back at the conditions we used to put up with, we really had a lot of dedication and determination. Many of the pitches we played on were disgusting mud-heaps, on which the ball just about rolled.” An appearance at Old Trafford in the Women’s Cup Final saw less than 1,000 spectators dotted around the ground for the showpiece of the domestic game. When she played for England at the 1995 World Cup in Sweden, the team endured sleepless nights travelling on trains between venues and Powell says she was left out of pocket by the trip – a tournament that attracted little interest in the English press.
Fast forward 18 years and things had well and truly changed, as Powell began to feel the amount of media intrusion towards her players at Euro 2013 was an unwelcome distraction. As she herself admitted it was a case of being careful what you wish for, having sought for so long for an increased profile for the women’s game and then discovered the negative elements of it.
That level of increased interest was at least partly down to Powell, who since 1998 had been in a job where success was judged on more than just results. She also looked to increase interest in the women’s game and see youngsters develop. Given the end results she can be seen as having succeeded in all fields, England qualifying for several major tournaments (and reaching the Euro 2009 final) as they began to find themselves in the top bracket of women’s sides. Young talent would emerge and perhaps most significantly, the English female game became almost unrecognisable from years before in terms of interest and status including the creation of professional leagues. The presence of a Team GB women’s team at London 2012 – led by Powell, who as with when she was unexpectedly offered the England job in 1998 initially considered turning it down – would also help increase the profile.
Yet for all her achievements, it was reported when Powell was sacked in 2013 after a poor European Championship that many players were not sorry to see her leave and saw her management as a “dictatorship”. Powell’s claim that there was “cowardice” from her players who backed away from taking penalties in the shoot-out against France at the 2011 World Cup – comments she says in the book were said in the heat of the moment and not meant for publication – could not have helped the situation. Critics may happily point out that Sampson took England further in 2015 than Powell ever did at a World Cup (Powell refuses to take any credit in the book for that third-place finish). Powell also believes certain people at the FA resented the level of control she had been allowed to gain over its female international football structure, something she puts down to the organisation getting her “on the cheap” and expecting her to be responsible for all levels.
But even those who fell out with Powell would surely concede that she helped the women’s game progress in England, being ready to take on the conservative elements of the FA and fight for improvements to the sport. She writes: “When you’re working class and black, never mind having a same-sex partner, you learn early on in life that you’re going to have to fight for everything you achieve… you will come up against people who have a total sense of entitlement and privilege. They pretty much run everything, from the government to companies and organisations, including the FA, who are threatened by people like me. We don’t fit their mould and, when we get into positions of authority, they’re not really quite sure how to deal with us. Throughout the time I worked at the FA, they were legion.”
Powell did not in any way fit the stereotype of an FA employee and she was anything but a yes-woman, continually fighting the establishment and seeking to strengthen the women’s game. She was not without her critics as England boss but Hope did indeed help give hope to many girls and women that they could make it in football – and enjoy a much more attractive career than the one she had on deserted mud-heaps in the 1980s. Her story is one that has been worth telling.
- Hope: My Life in Football by Hope Powell with Marvin Close, is published by Bloomsbury.
This summer marks the 20th anniversary of Euro ’96. Although there may not be as much focus on the tournament’s landmark anniversary as there is on it being 50 years since England’s World Cup triumph of 1966, it is certainly not being ignored. A new book, When Football Came Home, has been written by Michael Gibbons and helps capture the spirit of the competition staged in England – which the hosts so nearly won but suffered penalty heartache in the semi-finals.
The front cover of this book does not depict Paul Gascoigne scoring his wondergoal against Scotland, England celebrating beating the Dutch 4-1 or Stuart Pearce screaming with delight after scoring his penalty against Spain. Instead the image is of Gascoigne missing the ball by inches with the goal at his mercy during golden goal extra-time against Germany. It’s an incident at the heart of the book, Gibbons dwelling more on the significance of this moment than Gareth Southgate’s decisive miss in the shoot-out. It reminds us England were literally inches away from reaching the final and in all probability winning Euro ’96.
Gibbons picks up the story with England failing to qualify for the 1994 World Cup and Terry Venables taking charge of the team shortly afterwards. As the book’s sub-title of ‘England, the English and Euro 96’ suggests, England are the primary focus but the tournament as a whole is rightly afforded detailed coverage. Memories such as Romania’s ‘did it cross the line?’ no-goal against Bulgaria, the emergence of Croatia at their first major tournament, BBC pundit Ruud Gullit coining the phrase “sexy football” and the Germans winning the final with the competition’s first golden goal are all recalled along with many others.
The author has clearly done his research and one of the book’s strengths is digging up some of the long-forgotten details of the competition. Examples include England forward Teddy Sheringham helping lead the way in internet coverage of the tournament at the time with his website Teddy Hits the Net (anyone remember it?); UEFA rejecting a request by Denmark to play in their stadium host Sheffield Wednesday’s colours of blue and white as a mark of respect to those killed in the Hillsborough disaster; Germany being granted special dispensation to call up extra players to their squad for the final amid a plethora of injuries and suspensions; and the FA suddenly withdrawing its request at the 11th hour for David Baddiel and Frank Skinner to perform the competition’s hit song Three Lions on the Wembley turf prior to England’s match with Germany.
Teddy Sheringham scores and you could read all about it on his Teddy Hits the Net website!
The book recalls the contrasting impression visiting nations left at the clubs they trained at and towns they stayed in, from the eventual finalists Czech Republic winning plenty of friends at non-league Bamber Bridge to Bulgaria being so unimpressed with what was on offer at Scarborough that they upped sticks and moved to Stockton-on-Tees. Germany it seems generally created a decent impression during their visit, despite manager Berti Vogts being extremely critical of Macclesfield Town’s Moss Rose pitch where they trained. Such details may not represent the most significant moments of Euro ’96, but their inclusion gives added depth and colour to the book.
Gibbons is clearly nostalgic about Euro ’96 but this is not a one-eyed love letter to the tournament. As well as hailing the successes, he reflects on the competition’s failings including the significant number of empty seats at some matches, a truly dreadful semi-final between France and the Czech Republic and the negative approach teams generally adopted under the new golden goal extra time ruling (England’s clash with Germany being a notable exception). He also goes into detail on England’s infamous pre-tournament trip to China and Hong Kong and is scathing about the xenophobic conduct of the English tabloid press during the tournament.
Nor does this book glorify England’s achievements. Gibbons details how fortunate they were to win against Spain in the quarter-finals and takes them to task over how only the five likely takers practised penalties, those in charge not appearing to consider the possibility of a shoot-out going to sudden death – which it duly did as they lost out against Germany. “It was an extraordinary oversight,” Gibbons writes, bemused at how this eventuality had not been considered during 27 months of preparation.
The Cross of St George was increasingly seen on flags waved by fans from this tournament onwards.
The author tells of some other key changes that took effect during Euro ’96, including how England fans were now starting to increasingly wave flags bearing the Cross of St George at matches rather than the Union Jack. Gibbons also notes that the public response to Southgate making a Pizza Hut advert with Pearce and Chris Waddle – as he was condemned in some quarters for making light of his penalty miss – gave strong hints of the increasingly melodramatic way the public would react to anything concerning the England team. “The subsequent outcry was an indicator of where football was about to go,” he writes. “Rage became all the rage. From Euro 96 it was possible to map a rising hysteria with all things relating to the England team.”
The shifting political and cultural landscape of the time is recalled, particularly musically with the rise of Britpop and the impact bands such as Oasis had in the mid-1990s. The feelgood factor from that summer is perhaps the lasting memory. If you aren’t old enough to remember Euro ’96 then this book may help give some explanation of why it is so fondly recalled by most of us who were around for it. And if you did watch it all, this is a good way of reliving the competition two decades later. It’s an excellent read, which does justice to both the tournament and the period in England.
When Football Came Home: England, the English and Euro 96 is written by Michael Gibbons and published by Pitch Publishing. The book is priced £12.99.